Sunday, 11 December 2011

IQ Test

IQ Test

Higher-Order Thinking Skills-Definition, Teaching Strategies & Assessment

Higher-Order Thinking Skills-Definition, Teaching Strategies & Assessment

Higher-Order Thinking Skills

Higher-Order Thinking Skills

The Teaching Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Malaysia

The Teaching Higher-Order Thinking Skills in Malaysia

Saturday, 10 December 2011

What Is Portfolio

1. What is a portfolio?

A portfolio is a collection of evidence that represents achievement and learning within a module/course or programme of study.

2. What is portfolio-based learning?

Portfolios require both the gathering and presentation of evidence and an element of critical reflection or commentary. This may either be integrated into elements of the portfolio, or be a separate element in its own right, in which the student "draws the evidence together into a coherent tale of learning, of sense made, of new ideas developed, tested and sometimes discarded" (Baume, 2001:8).
Portfolio-based learning thus tends to draw heavily on _experiential learning theory_, particularly Kolb’s (1984) concept of the ‘learning cycle’ (see also Maughan, 1996). This recognises that experience by itself is just a starting point. Learning only takes place if students reflect on that experience, conceptualise new ‘rules’ for action based on their experience and reflection, and then test those rules in another concrete situation.

How easy are portfolios to assess?

It depends on the portfolio! Assessing portfolios can be a long job, and can raise issues of assessment validity and reliability. All of these problems can be overcome.
How manageable have you made the assessment?
  • Have you taken steps to keep the portfolios manageable?
  • Do not assume that you need to read all of the evidence (in depth, or sometimes, even, at all). Particularly if there is a reflective commentary, the assessor may only need to check that evidence:
    1. is there
    2. what the student claims it to be
    3. proves what the student claims that it proves
  • This can often be achieved on a fairly cursory reading, provided the student has labelled the evidence clearly.
  • You can also reduce the assessment burden by:
    • using ‘tick-box’ feedback pro-formas which list common errors and limit the need to write extensive comments
    • making some tasks subject to student self-evaluation and/or peer review (this also enables you to show that the assessment enhances students opportunities to learn how to learn)
Do you want to assess them periodically or summatively?
You may want to choose between ‘end of module’ summative assessment or on-going periodic assessment during the module.
Summative assessment is usually so-called because it is (1) summative in purpose, ie it is used to make a final judgement on a students performance, and (2), often (though not necessarily), summative in time, ie it occurs at the end of a module. It contrasts with formative assessment, which normally takes place during the module, the purpose of which is developmental. Periodic assessment is a hybrid. It is summative in purpose, in that it ‘counts’ as a final judgment, but the fact that it is undertaken periodically through the module means it may also have some of the developmental functions of formative assessment.
There is nothing wrong with this! It is perfectly acceptable practice to combine formative and summative objectives in an assessment task. The main pros and cons (you may think of others) seem to be:
Summative1. may be better for assessing progression and development throughout the module, rather than a set of discrete tasks
2. may be easier to achieve reliable assessment decisions
1. need to create a separate opportunity for formative evaluation, given novelty of the assessment method
2. can you ensure adequate marking time?
3. problem of storage and moving bulky documents between markers
Periodic1. good for assessing a range of discrete tasks
2. can make the assessment process more formative
3. may enable students to have continuing opportunities to achieve competence
4. educes/eliminates end of module assessment rush
1. may encourage students to become very task – and assessment – orientated
2. likely to commit more in-course staff and student time to the assessment process
3. beware of students losing work/not handing in portfolios for external moderation (unless this is also undertaken periodically)
How do you ensure validity and reliability of assessment?
An assessment is valid where it enables students to demonstrate that they have achieved the essential outcomes of the course and it requires assessors to make their judgements against those intended outcomes. It is reliable where there is close agreement on assessment judgements between assessors.
Portfolios are effective tools for making valid assessment decisions because:
  • they require students themselves to show how they have met the outcomes of the course (and so may involve less inferential judgment by tutors than some assessment tasks)
  • they make it harder for students to learn atomistically (for example by ‘question spotting’) and so enable students to achieve larger course outcomes
BUT the capacity for portfolios to include large amounts of personal and tacit knowledge can create problems for reliability it can become harder to compare like with like or to judege objectively the value of the knowledge and understanding displayed.
To minimise reliability problems, maximise:
  • student understanding of the task required
  • consensus over assessment criteria (are students satisfied the criteria are fair and objective?)
  • the clarity of assessment and marking criteria
  • opportunities to standardise assessment judgements within the marking team
and limit the number of assessment outcomes to those which you believe are necessary and achievable as a rule, reliability declines with the multiplication of outcomes.

What Is Classrom Assessment?

What is classroom assessment?
"Classroom Assessment Techniques" are teaching techniques which have been developed by K. Patricia Cross of U.C. Berkeley and Thomas A. Angelo of Boston College in which instructors use simple research techniques to find out what students have been learning. These techniques are described in detail in their 1993 book, Classroom Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers.

Benefits of Using Classroom Assessment Techniques
Clear benefits have been shown by using Classroom Assessment Techniques in the teaching and learning process, for both faculty and students.

How to Use Classroom Assessment Techniques
Classroom Assessment Techniques may be used in any type of class: traditional academic classes such as Communication, History, and Math; professional "hands-on" classes such as Post Bacc, MAED, and Technology Education; and activity classes such as those in Business and Management, and General Studies. The book mentioned above contains details of 50 different Classroom Assessment Techniques. Some are for individuals, others are for use in small groups. Some are designed to check students' immediate understanding, others are for application and critical thinking.

The assessment of the acquisition of thinking skill needs to accomplish the following goals:

a. requires students to develop responses rather than select from predetermined options
b. elicits higher order thinking in addition to basic skills
c. directly evaluates holistic projects
d. synthesizes with classroom instruction
e. uses samples of student work (portfolios) collected over an extended time period
f. stems from clear criteria made known to students
g. allows for the possibility of multiple human judgments
h. relates more closely to classroom learning.
                                         (N.S. Rajendran, 2010)

Thursday, 8 December 2011

Jenis-jenis Jurnal Untuk Meningkatkan Kesan Pembelajaran dan Pemikiran

Penulisan jurnal amat berguna untuk meningkatkan kemahiran pembelajaran dan kemahiran berfikir secara kritis dan kreatif. Meskipun demikian, apabila pelajar diminta menulis jurnal, soalan pertama yang akan dibangkitkan ialah format dan bentuknya. Pelajar yang mahir dan mempunyai daya pemikiran yang tinggi tidak perlu memikirkan bentuk jurnalnya. Ini adalah kerana kegigihan dan isi kandungan yang dicatat serta direnung adalah lebih penting daripada format. Halaman ini memaparkan beberapa format jurnal mengikut tujuan jurnal disimpan. Format-format ini boleh digunakan secara berasingan atau digabungkan dengan satu sama lain mengikut keperluan semasa.
Jenis-Jenis Jurnal

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Jurnal Metakognisi
Untuk meningkatkan paras pemikiran kritis, seseorang hendaklah memantau dan menyedari proses pemikirannya. Dalam jurnal metakognisi, pelajar menganalisa proses pemikiran sendiri selepas membaca, melakukan sesuatu aktiviti, menyelesaikan sesuatu masalah, atau membuat sesuatu keputusan. Jurnal Metakognisi menggalakkan pelajar merenung atas proses bacaan, draf-draf akhir, atau presentasinya.
Soalan Penting: Apakah yang menyebebkan anda memperoleh faedah dari pengalaman ini? Apakah yang menyebabkan akan berfikir semikian? Jika diberi masa yang lebih banyak, apakah yang anda akan ubahsuai? Apakah cara membuat keputusan atau penyelesaian masalah itu cekap dan berkesan?
Pada bahagian kiri kertas, pelajar mencatat - 'Apakah Yang Saya Belajar'. Pada bahagian kanan - 'Bagaimanakah Saya Belajarnya'.
Jurnal Metakognisi
Apakah Yang Saya Belajar
Bagaimanakah Saya Belajar

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Jurnal Dilektika
Jurnal Dilektika merupakan satu bentuk catatan nota yang melibatkan catatan bergu semasa membaca bahan kursus. Dalam dua lajur yang disediakan, pelajar mencatatkan bahan bacaan seperti petikan, masalah, isu atau dialog, dan sebab-sebabnya catatannya itu penting atau menarik? Dengan kaedah ini, pelajar berlatih untuk mengadakan dialog dialektid dengan rakannya apabila ia membaca jurnal orang lain. Justeru itu, jurnal dialektika membantu membangunkan pembacaan kritis dan penyaolan refleksi.
Jurnal Dilektika
Mengapa saya rasa petikan ini menarik atau penting

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Jurnal Catatan Bergu
Jurnal Catatan Bergu membolehkan pelajar merekodkan respons kepada teks yang dibacanya. Dalam kolum kiri, pelajar mencatat atau merumuskan teks yang dirasa menarik, membingungkan, atau mengharunya, atau berkait dengan catatan jurnal yang lalu, atau sesuatu situasi. Dalam kolum sebelah kanan, pelajar bertindak balas kepada petikan atau catatan di sebelah kiri. Catatan boleh berbentuk komen, soalan, kaitan yang dirumuskan, atau analisis. Catatan dalam jurnal dibuat apabila wujudnya hentian secara natural berlaku agar tidak mengganggu proses bacaan.
Jurnal Catatan Bergu
Petikan: Fasa atau Ayat yang saya gemari
Pendapat saya tentang petikan ini

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Jurnal Refleksi
Dalam Jurnal Refleksi pelajar mengenalpasti sesuatu aktiviti, lalu merenung atas bahan pembelajarannya.
Jurnal Refleksi
Apakah berlaku?
Bagaimankah perasaan saya?
Apakah yang saya belajar?

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Jurnal Spekulasi Akibat
Dalam jurnal ini, pelajar memeriksa sesuatu peristiwa dan membuat spekulasi tentang kesan jangka panjang yang diakibatkan oleh perisitiwa itu. Catatan jurnal ini menggalakkan pelajar membuat ramalan atas peristiwa dan aktiviti yang dialaminya.
Pada kolum diri, pelajar mencatatkan apa yang (telah) berlaku mankala pada kolum kanan ia mencatatkan akibat-akibat yang mungkin berlaku disebabkan oleh peristiwa berkenaan.
Jurnal Spekulasi Akibat 
Apakah yang berlaku
Apakah akibat yang diramalkan

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Jurnal Sintesis
Pada akhir minggu atau tamatnya satu unit pengajaran, pelajar-pelajar boleh merenung atas semua aktiviti-aktiviti yang dikumpulkan. Catatan jurnal ini menggalakkan pelajar mengulang kaji pengalaman lalu merancang aplikasi pemelajaran sedia ada untuk masa hadapan. Tindakan menulis meneguhkan apa yang telah dipelajarinya.
Bahagikan halaman kepada tiga seksyen. Catatkan 'Apa yang saya lakukan', Apa yang saya pelajari', dan 'Bagaimana saya boleh mengaplikasikannya'.
Jurnal Sintesis
Apakah yang saya lakukan
Apakah yang saya pelajari
Bagaiman saya boleh mengaplikasikannya

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Log Pembelajaran
Salah satu bentuk jurnal yang penting ialah Log Pembelajaran. Log Pembelajaran selalunya dikaitkan dengan kesusasteran tetapi boleh digunakan dalam banyak situasi yang lain. Untuk butiran yang lebih tentang Log Pembelajaran semak nota tentang Log Pembelajaran.
Kolum kiri (Mencatat Nota) dicatat teks secara verbatim, nota kajian, nota kuliah, perbendaharaan kata, atau soalan-soalan. Kolum kanan (Membina Nota) merupakan catatan seperti respons, interpretasi, analisis pelajar.
Log Pembelajaran
Mencatat Nota
Membina Nota